Gaibandha is a district in Northern Bangladesh. Now it is a part of the Rangpur division but before 1 year it was under Rajshahi Division. Gaibandha district was established in 1984. The district consists of 7 upazilas, 3 municipalities, 27 wards, 82 union parishads, 1101 mouzas, 56 mahallas and 1244 villages. 7 upazilas/thanas are Fulchhari, Gaibandha sadar, Gobindaganj, Palashbari, Sadullapur, Saghata, and Sundarganj. Three municipalities are Gaibandha Sadar, Gobindaganj and Sundarganj.
Area: 2179.27 square kilometers.
Boundary: The district has boundaries with the Kurigram and Rangpur to the north, Bogra District to the south, Dinajpur and Rangpur districts to the west, and Jamalpur and Kurigram districts, and the Brahmaputra River to the east.
Population (2003 ): 2,117,959. males 50.26% and females 49.74%.
Religion: Muslims 91.29% , Hindus7.79%, Christians0.22%, Buddhists0.13% and others 0.57%.
Ethnic nationals: Santal and Garo.
Literacy rate: Average literacy 24.3%; male 31.6% and female 16.5%.
Marks of War of Liberation: Mass killing site 3, mass grave 3, memorial monument 2.
Major Educational institutions: Government college 3, non-government college 41, primary teacher’s training institute 1, vocational training centre 1, agricultural training institute 1, B.Ed college 1, homeopath college 1.
Main Rivers: Ghaghat, karatoya, bangali and tista.
Weather: Annual average temperature maximum 33.5°C, minimum 10.5°C. annual rainfall 2536 mm.
Main crops: Paddy, wheat, jute, sugarcane, potato, brinjal, mustard seed, chilli, onion, garlic and vegetables.
This region was a part of the Mourya, Pala, Gupta and Kamarupa kingdoms at different times.Movement was held in 1783 in this district against collection of excess taxes.
In this district Anti British movement (1921) and tebhaga movement (1946) were initiated. Fayezuddin and Puti Sheikh were killed by Police firing in 1949 in a movement to stop collection of tolls at hats and bazars. A Peasant Convention was held at Fulchhari in 1956 under the leadership of Maulana Abdul Hamid khan Bhasani.
Places of Interest:
There are many places of interest of archaeological heritage and relics in this district . Some of them are-Vardhan Kuthi, Gobindaganj (17th century), house of Naldanga Zamindar along with its Shiva Linga made of black basalt, Vrisa Mandir of white stone and a large pond, house of Bamandanga Zamindar, Mosque at Jamalpur, Mosque of Shah Sultan Gazi at Mirer Bagan (1308), large pond at Faridpur and Masta Mosque at Gobindaganj.
Gaibandha is a small Town consists of 9 wards and 34 mahallas. The area of the town is 17.63 sq km. This town was established in 1875 when the subdivision was transferred from Bhabaniganj to Gaibandha. Gaibandha municipality was established in 1923. Literacy rate among the town people is 61.9%. It has a population of 58362; male 51.14%, female 48.86%.